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PDF/A - Wikipedia complaint synonym

PDF/A From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation , search PDF/A Filename extension .pdf Internet media type application/pdf Type code 'PDF ' (including a single space) Uniform Type Identifier (UTI) com.adobe.pdf Magic number %PDF Developed by ISO Initial release October 1, 2005 ; 11 years ago  ( 2005-10-01 ) Extended from PDF Standard ISO 19005

PDF/A is an ISO -standardized version of the Portable Document Format (PDF) specialized for use in the archiving and long-term preservation of electronic documents . PDF/A differs from PDF by prohibiting features ill-suited to long-term archiving, such as font linking (as opposed to font embedding ) and encryption. [1] The ISO requirements for PDF/A file viewers include color management guidelines, support for embedded fonts, and a user interface for reading embedded annotations .

Contents 1 Standards 2 Background 3 Description 4 Conformance levels and versions 4.1 PDF/A-1 4.2 PDF/A-2 4.3 PDF/A-3 5 Identification 6 Validation 6.1 Isartor Test Suite 6.2 veraPDF 7 PDF/A viewers 8 Drawbacks 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Standards [ edit ] ISO 19005 – Document management – Electronic document file format for long-term preservation (PDF/A) Abbr. Subtitle Published Standard Based on Ref. PDF/A-1 Part 1: Use of PDF 1.4 2005-09-28 ISO 19005-1 PDF 1.4 ( Adobe Systems , PDF Reference , third edition) [2] PDF/A-2 Part 2: Use of ISO 32000-1 2011-06-20 ISO 19005-2 PDF 1.7 (ISO 32000-1:2008) [3] PDF/A-3 Part 3: Use of ISO 32000-1 with support for embedded files 2012-10-15 ISO 19005-3 PDF 1.7 (ISO 32000-1:2008) [4] Background [ edit ]

PDF is a standard for encoding documents in an "as printed" form that is portable between systems. However, the suitability of a PDF file for archival preservation depends on options chosen when the PDF is created: most notably, whether to embed the necessary fonts for rendering the document; whether to use encryption; and whether to preserve additional information from the original document beyond what is needed to print it.

PDF/A was originally a new joint activity between the Association for Suppliers of Printing, Publishing and Converting Technologies ( NPES ) and the Association for Information and Image Management to develop an international standard defining the use of the Portable Document Format (PDF) for archiving documents. [5] The goal was to address the growing need to electronically archive documents in a way that would ensure preservation of their contents over an extended period of time and ensure that those documents would be able to be retrieved and rendered with a consistent and predictable result in the future. [6] This need exists in a wide variety of government and industry areas world-wide, including legal systems, libraries, newspapers, and regulated industries. [7]

Description [ edit ]

The PDF/A standard does not define an archiving strategy or the goals of an archiving system. It identifies a "profile" for electronic documents that ensures the documents can be reproduced exactly the same way using various software in years to come. A key element to this reproducibility is the requirement for PDF/A documents to be 100% self-contained. All of the information necessary for displaying the document in the same manner is embedded in the file. This includes, but is not limited to, all content (text, raster images and vector graphics), fonts, and color information. A PDF/A document is not permitted to be reliant on information from external sources (e.g. font programs and data streams), but may include annotations (e.g. hypertext links) that link to external documents. [8]

Other key elements to PDF/A conformance include: [9] [10] [11]

Audio and video content is forbidden. JavaScript and executable file launches are forbidden. All fonts must be embedded and also must be legally embeddable for unlimited, universal rendering. This also applies to the so-called PostScript standard fonts such as Times or Helvetica . Colorspaces specified in a device-independent manner. Encryption is forbidden. Use of standards-based metadata is required. External content references are forbidden. LZW is forbidden due to intellectual property constraints. JPEG2000 image compression models is not allowed in PDF/A-1 (based on PDF 1.4), as it was first introduced in PDF 1.5. JPEG 2000 compression is allowed in PDF/A-2 and PDF/A-3. Transparent objects and layers (Optional Content Groups) are forbidden in PDF/A-1, but are allowed in PDF/A-2. Provisions for digital signatures in accordance with the PAdES (PDF Advanced Electronic Signatures ) standard are supported in PDF/A-2. Embedded files are forbidden in PDF/A-1, but PDF/A-2 allows embedding of PDF/A files, facilitating the archiving of sets of PDF/A documents in a single file. PDF/A-3 allows embedding of any file format such as XML, CAD and others into PDF/A documents. The use of XML-based XML Forms Architecture (XFA) forms is forbidden in PDF/A. (XFA form data may be preserved in a PDF/A-2 file by moving from XFA key to the Names tree that itself is the value of the XFAResources key of the Names dictionary of the document catalog dictionary.) Interactive PDF form fields must have an appearance dictionary associated with the field's data. The appearance dictionary shall be used when rendering the field. Conformance levels and versions [ edit ] PDF/A-1 [ edit ]

Part 1 of the standard was first published on September 28, 2005, [2] and specifies two levels of conformance for PDF files: [12]

PDF/A-1b – Level B (basic) conformance PDF/A-1a – Level A (accessible) conformance

Level B conformance requires only that standards necessary for the reliable reproduction of a document's visual appearance be followed, while Level A conformance includes all Level B requirements in addition to features intended to improve a document's accessibility , such as:

Language specification Hierarchical document structure Tagged text spans and descriptive text for images and symbols Character mappings to Unicode

Level A conformance was intended to increase the accessibility of conforming files for physically impaired users by allowing assistive software, such as screen readers , to more precisely extract and interpret a file's contents. [12] A later standard, PDF/UA , was developed to eliminate what became considered some of PDF/A's shortcomings, replacing many of its general guidelines with more detailed technical specifications. [13]

PDF/A-2 [ edit ]

Part 2 of the standard, published on June 20, 2011, [3] addresses some of the new features added with versions 1.5, 1.6 and 1.7 of the PDF Reference. PDF/A-1 files will not necessarily conform to PDF/A-2, and PDF/A-2 compliant files will not necessarily conform to PDF/A-1.

Part 2 of the PDF/A Standard is based on a PDF 1.7 (ISO 32000-1), rather than PDF 1.4 and offers a number of new features:

JPEG 2000 image compression support for transparency effects and layers embedding of OpenType fonts provisions for digital signatures in accordance with the PDF Advanced Electronic Signatures – PAdES standard the option of embedding PDF/A files to facilitate archiving of sets of documents with a single file. [10]

Part 2 defines three conformance levels. PDF/A-2a and PDF/A-2b correspond to conformance levels a and b in PDF/A-1. A new conformance level, PDF/A-2u, represents Level B conformance (PDF/A-2b) with the additional requirement that all text in the document have Unicode mapping. [12] [14]

PDF/A-3 [ edit ]

Part 3 of the standard, published on October 15, 2012, [4] differs from PDF/A-2 in only one regard – it allows embedding of arbitrary file formats (such as XML, CSV, CAD, word-processing documents, spreadsheet documents, and others) into PDF/A conforming documents. [15]

Identification [ edit ]

A PDF/A document can be identified as such through PDF/A-specific metadata located in the "http://www.aiim.org/pdfa/ns/id/" namespace. This metadata represents a claim of conformance; in itself it does not ensure conformance:

a PDF document can be PDF/A-compliant, except for its lack of PDF/A metadata. This may happen for instance with documents that were generated before the definition of the PDF/A standard, by authors aware of features that present long-term preservation issues. a PDF document can be identified as PDF/A, but may incorrectly contain PDF features not allowed in PDF/A; hence, documents which claim to be PDF/A-compliant should be tested for PDF/A compliance. [16] Validation [ edit ] Isartor Test Suite [ edit ]

Industry collaboration in the original PDF/A Competence Center led to the development of the Isartor Test Suite in 2007 and 2008. The test suite consists of 204 PDF files intentionally constructed to systematically fail each of the requirements for PDF/A-1b conformance, allowing developers to test the ability of their software to validate against the standard's most basic level of conformance. [17] [18] By mid-2009 the test suite had already made an appreciable difference in the general quality of PDF/A validation software. [19]

veraPDF [ edit ]

Working with the other members of the veraPDF consortium, including the Open Preservation Foundation, [20] to respond to the EU Commission's PREFORMA project [21] the PDF Association launched the PDF Validation Technical Working Group in November 2014 to articulate a plan for developing an industry-supported PDF/A validator. [22] [ not in citation given ]

Based on its test corpora (which incorporates the Isartor Test Suite) and software development plan the veraPDF consortium subsequently won phase 2 of the PREFORMA contract in April 2015. [23] As of August 2016 the veraPDF software was well-advanced. [24] Phase 2 will be completed by December 2016, and will be followed by Phase 3, a six-month testing and acceptance period.

As of 2017 [update] , veraPDF is available to be installed on Windows, macOS, or Linux (veraPDF version 1.0.12-PDFBOX built 2017-01-27 or better). [25]

PDF/A viewers [ edit ]

The PDF/A specification also states some requirements for a conforming PDF/A viewer, which must

ignore any data that are not described by the PDF and PDF/A standards; ignore any linearization information provided by the file; only use the embedded fonts (rather than any locally available, substituted or simulated fonts); only display using the embedded colour profile; ensure that form fields do not change the rendered presentation and are rendered without regard to the form data; ensure that annotations are rendered consistently.

When encountering a file that claims conformance with PDF/A, some PDF viewers will default to a special "PDF/A viewing mode" to fulfill conforming reader requirements. To take one example, Adobe Acrobat and Adobe Reader 9 include an alert to advise the user that PDF/A viewing mode has been activated. Some PDF viewers allow users to disable the PDF/A viewing mode or to remove the PDF/A information from a file. [26] [27]

Drawbacks [ edit ]

A PDF/A document must embed all fonts in use; accordingly, a PDF/A file will often be larger than an equivalent PDF file that does not include embedded fonts.

The use of transparency is forbidden in PDF/A-1. The majority of PDF generation tools that allow for PDF/A document compliance, such as the PDF export in OpenOffice.org or PDF export tool in Microsoft Office 2007 suites, will also make any transparent images in a given document non-transparent. That restriction was removed in PDF/A-2. [9]

Some archivists have voiced concerns that PDF/A-3, which allows arbitrary files to be embedded in PDF/A documents, could result in circumvention of memory institution procedures and restrictions on archived formats. [28]

The PDF Association had addressed various misconceptions [29] regarding PDF/A in its publication " PDF/A in a Nutshell 2.0 ".

Converting a PDF (up to version 1.4) into a PDF/A-2 usually works as expected, except for problems with glyphs. According to the PDF Association, "Problems can occur before and/or during the generation of PDFs. A PDF/A file can be formally correct yet still have incorrect glyphs. Only a careful visual check can uncover this problem. Because generation problems also affect Unicode mapping, the problem attracts the attention when a visual check is carried out on the extracted text. In PDF/A, text/font usage is specified uniquely enough to ensure that it cannot be incorrect. If viewers or printers do not offer complete support for encoding systems, this can result in problems with regard to PDF/A." [30] Meaning that for a document to be completely compliant with the standard, it will be correct internally, while the system used for viewing or printing the document may produce undesired results.

A document produced with OCR conversion into PDF/A-2 or PDF/A-3 doesn't support the notdefglyph flag. Therefore, this type of conversion can result in unrendered content.

See also [ edit ] Digital dark age PDF/X – another subset of the PDF standard, this time optimized for print production References [ edit ] ^ Oettler, Alexandra (2013-02-07). "PDF/A facts – an introduction to the standard" (PDF) . PDF Association . Retrieved 2014-07-11 .   ^ a b "ISO 19005-1:2005" . ISO . Retrieved 2016-07-27 .   ^ a b "ISO 19005-2:2011" . ISO . Retrieved 2016-07-27 .   ^ a b "ISO 19005-3:2012" . ISO . Retrieved 2016-07-27 .   ^ "A short history of PDF/A" (PDF) . PDF Association . 2013-02-07 . Retrieved 2014-07-11 .   ^ Oettler, Alexandra (2013-02-07). "The most important reasons to use PDF/A" (PDF) . PDF Association . Retrieved 2014-07-11 .   ^ Oettler, Alexandra (2013-02-07). "Typical uses for PDF/A" (PDF) . PDF Association . Retrieved 2014-07-11 .   ^ Oettler, Alexandra (2013-02-07). "The technical side of the PDF/A standard" (PDF) . PDF Association . Retrieved 2014-07-11 .   ^ a b "PDF/A – A Look at the Technical Side" (PDF) . Retrieved 2011-07-06 .   ^ a b "PDF/A-2 Standard Published by ISO! The New Standard Includes Great Technical Enhancements." (PDF) . 2011-07-01 . Retrieved 2011-07-06 .   ^ Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) – ISO 19005-1:2005 – PDF/A-1, Date: July 10, 2006 (PDF) , 2006-07-10 , retrieved 2011-07-06   ^ a b c "Improved PDF/A-1b" (PDF) . PDF Association . 2011-08-05 . Retrieved 2012-09-26 .   ^ Oettler, Alexandra (2013-02-07). "PDF/A and the other PDF standards" (PDF) . PDF Association . Retrieved 2014-07-12 .   ^ PDF/A-2, PDF for Long-term Preservation, Use of ISO 32000-1 (PDF 1.7) , Library of Congress , retrieved 2012-09-26   ^ "PDF Association Arranges Its First Seminar on PDF/A to Include Standards 1 to 3" (PDF) . PDF Association . 2012-03-29.   ^ Oettler, Alexandra (2013-02-07). "Validation: is it really PDF/A?" (PDF) . PDF Association . Retrieved 2014-07-11 .   ^ Isartor Test Suite (PDF) . PDF/A Competence Center. 2008-08-12 . Retrieved 2016-09-23 .   ^ "Isartor Test Suite" (PDF) . PDF Association . 2011-08-03 . Retrieved 2016-09-23 .   ^ "Bavaria Report" (PDF) . PDFlib . 2009. Archived from the original on 2015-04-21 . Retrieved 2015-04-30 .   CS1 maint: Unfit url ( link ) ^ "Open Preservation Foundation veraPDF project" . Open Preservation Foundation . Retrieved 2015-04-30 .   ^ PREFORMA, an EU Commission funded project   ^ "A consortium including the PDF Association wins phase 1 of an EU Commission tender to create an open-source PDF/A validator" (PDF) . PDF Association . 2014-11-13 . Retrieved 2015-04-30 .   ^ PREFORMA starts prototyping phase , retrieved 2015-04-30   ^ "veraPDF 0.22 released" (PDF) . Retrieved 23 September 2016 .   ^ "Software" . veraPDF . 30 June 2015 . Retrieved 2017-03-15 .   Page for downloading the platform-specific installer. ^ "How to Remove PDF/A Information from a file" . Retrieved 2014-04-10 .   ^ "Change the PDF/A viewing mode" . Retrieved 2014-04-10 .   ^ Archivists: No flowers for PDF/A-3 , retrieved 2014-07-12   ^ The myths and legends surrounding PDF/A (PDF) , retrieved 2014-07-12   ^ PDF/A – A Look at the Technical Side (PDF) , retrieved 2015-08-14   Further reading [ edit ] PDF/A in a Nutshell 2.0 – published by PDF Association (2013) PDF/A 101: An Introduction – presentation from the First International PDF/A Conference (2008) White Paper: PDF/A – The Basics – from PDF Tools AG (2009) Format description for PDF/A-1 – at digitalpreservation.gov External links [ edit ] PDF Association PDF/A Competence Center veraPDF – PDF/A validation software v t e ISO standards by standard number List of ISO standards  / ISO romanizations  / IEC standards 1–9999 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 16 31 -0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 128 216 217 226 228 233 259 269 302 306 428 518 519 639 -1 -2 -3 -5 -6 646 690 732 764 843 898 965 1000 1004 1007 1073-1 1413 1538 1745 1989 2014 2015 2022 2047 2108 2145 2146 2240 2281 2709 2711 2788 2852 3029 3103 3166 -1 -2 -3 3297 3307 3602 3864 3901 3977 4031 4157 4217 4909 5218 5428 5775 5776 5800 5964 6166 6344 6346 6385 6425 6429 6438 6523 6709 7001 7002 7098 7185 7200 7498 7736 7810 7811 7812 7813 7816 8000 8178 8217 8571 8583 8601 8632 8652 8691 8807 8820-5 8859 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -8-I -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 8879 9000/9001 9075 9126 9293 9241 9362 9407 9506 9529 9564 9594 9660 9897 9899 9945 9984 9985 9995 10000–19999 10005 10006 10007 10116 10118-3 10160 10161 10165 10179 10206 10218 10303 -11 -21 -22 -28 -238 10383 10487 10585 10589 10646 10664 10746 10861 10957 10962 10967 11073 11170 11179 11404 11544 11783 11784 11785 11801 11898 11940 ( -2 ) 11941 11941 (TR) 11992 12006 12182 12207 12234-2 13211 -1 -2 13216 13250 13399 13406-2 13450 13485 13490 13567 13568 13584 13616 14000 14031 14224 14289 14396 14443 14496 -2 -3 -6 -10 -11 -12 -14 -17 -20 14644 14649 14651 14698 14750 14764 14882 14971 15022 15189 15288 15291 15292 15398 15408 15444 -3 15445 15438 15504 15511 15686 15693 15706 -2 15707 15897 15919 15924 15926 15926 WIP 15930 16023 16262 16612-2 16750 16949 (TS) 17024 17025 17100 17203 17369 17442 17799 18000 18004 18014 18245 18629 18916 19005 19011 19092 (-1 -2) 19114 19115 19125 19136 19439 19500 19501 19502 19503 19505 19506 19507 19508 19509 19510 19600:2014 19752 19757 19770 19775-1 19794-5 19831 20000+ 20000 20022 20121 20400 21000 21047 21500 21827:2002 22000 23270 23271 23360 24517 24613 24617 24707 25178 25964 26000 26300 26324 27000 series 27000 27001:2005 27001:2013 27002 27006 27729 28000 29110 29148 29199-2 29500 30170 31000 32000 38500 40500 42010 55000 80000 frzwfnqq. moncler boots for men-1 -2 -3 Category Retrieved from " https://en./w/index.php?title=PDF/A&oldid=780800344 " Categories : Archives Computer file formats Digital preservation ISO standards Page description languages Hidden categories: CS1 maint: Unfit url All articles with failed verification Articles with failed verification from July 2016 Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2017 All articles containing potentially dated statements
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Frequently Asked Questions Prior To Filing A Complaint After A Complaint Is Filed Related Evidence Urgent Complaints Terrorist Tips Disclosure of Information Spam Emails Media Employment Prior To Filing A Complaint Q: Who should file a complaint with the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3)?

You may file a complaint with the IC3 if you believe you have been the victim of an Internet crime or if you want to file on behalf of another person you believe has been such a victim.

Q: What details will I be asked to include in my complaint?

The IC3's ability to process your complaint will be based upon the accuracy and completeness of the information provided. The following is the type of information we ask for in the complaint form:

Victim's name, address, telephone, and email This will be your information if you are the victim, or another person if you are filing on behalf of a third party Financial transaction information (e.g., account information, transaction date and amount, who received the money) Subject's name, address, telephone, email, website, and IP address The subject is the person/entity allegedly committing the Internet crime Specific details on how you were victimized Email header(s) Any other relevant information you believe is necessary to support your complaint Q: How does the IC3 define Internet crime?

Internet crime includes any illegal activity involving one or more components of the Internet, such as websites, chat rooms, and/or email. Internet crime involves the use of the Internet to communicate false or fraudulent representations to consumers. These crimes may include, but are not limited to, advance-fee schemes, non-delivery of goods or services, computer hacking, or employment/business opportunity schemes.

Q: Can I file a complaint if I am a citizen of the United States but have been victimized by an individual or company outside of the United States?

If either the victim or the alleged subject of the Internet crime is located within the United States, you may file a complaint with the IC3

Q: Can I file a complaint if I have been victimized by an individual or company in the United States, but I am not a citizen of the United States?

Yes, if either you or the alleged subject of the Internet crime is located within the United States, regardless of citizenship, you may file a complaint with the IC3.

[ Back to Top ] After A Complaint Is Filed Q: What happens after I file a complaint?

Trained analysts at the IC3 review and research the complaints, disseminating information to the appropriate federal, state, local, or international law enforcement or regulatory agencies for criminal, civil, or administrative action, as appropriate.

Q: When will I be updated on the status of the investigation of my complaint?

After you file a complaint with the IC3, the information is reviewed by an analyst and forwarded to federal, state, local, or international law enforcement or regulatory agencies with jurisdiction. The IC3 does not conduct investigations and, therefore, is not able to provide the investigative status of a previously filed complaint. Investigation and prosecution is at the discretion of the receiving agencies.

Q: Will I be informed that my complaint was received successfully?

Once you file a complaint with the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3), you will receive the following message at the top of your filed complaint:

Thank you for submitting your complaint to the IC3. Please save or print a copy for your records. This is the only time you will have to make a copy of your complaint.

Q: How do I cancel my complaint that I filed?

Once a complaint has been filed with the IC3, it cannot be canceled.

[ Back to Top ] Related Evidence Q: Should I retain evidence that supports my complaint or send it to the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3)?

IC3 does not collect evidence regarding complaints. While you may cut and paste information into your complaint (e.g., email headers), you must be sure to keep all original documents in a secure location. In the event that a law enforcement or regulatory agency opens an investigation, they may request the information directly from you.

Q: What type of information would possibly be considered evidence in regard to my complaint?

It is important that you keep any evidence you may have related to your complaint. Evidence may include, but is not limited to, the following:

Canceled checks Credit card receipts Money order receipts Certified or other mail receipts Wire receipts Virtual currency receipts Pre-paid card receipts Envelopes (if you received items via FedEx, UPS, or U.S. Mail) Facsimiles Pamphlets or brochures Phone bills Printed or preferably electronic copies of emails (if printed, include full email header information) Printed or preferably electronic copies of web pages Hard drive images PCAP files containing malicious network traffic Network, host system, and/or security appliance logs Copies of malware Chat transcripts and/or telephony logs

Keep items in a safe location in the event you are requested to provide them for investigative or prosecutive evidence.

[ Back to Top ] Urgent Complaints Q: : Can I file a complaint if I have been threatened over the Internet via email, chat room, website, etc?

If you or someone else is in immediate danger, please call 911 or your local police.

Q:What should I do if I believe my complaint is time sensitive?

After you file a complaint with the IC3, the information is reviewed by an analyst and forwarded to federal, state, local, or international law enforcement or regulatory agencies with jurisdiction. As investigation and prosecution is at the discretion of the receiving agencies, please contact local law enforcement directly if you believe your matter is time sensitive.

[ Back to Top ] Terrorist Tips Q: Where should I submit information relating to possible terrorist activity?

To submit possible terrorist information, please visit the Federal Bureau of Investigation's website and submit a tip .

[ Back to Top ] Disclosure of Information Q: What information can the Internet Crime Complaint Center provide regarding the legitimacy of a company?

The IC3 cannot provide information on a specific company. The IC3 serves as the FBI's central repository for the collection of Internet crime complaints.

Q: What information can the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) provide if I think that a complaint has been filed against myself or company?

The IC3 is not a resource available to the general public for answering questions arising from the complaint information it receives. IC3 does not release information about specific complaints and/or the resolution of those complaints. Therefore, IC3 is unable to provide you with such information.

[ Back to Top ] Spam Emails Q: Is there an email address I can forward SPAM emails that I receive? The IC3 does not have an email address established for the receipt of such information. When filing a complaint at the IC3, be sure to copy and paste the entire email, including the header information, in the complaint. [ Back to Top ] Media Q: Who do I contact if I am a member of the media wishing to speak with a member of your press office?

Contact your local FBI office.

[ Back to Top ] Employment Q: Where can I find out about employment opportunities with the Internet Crime Complaint Center?

For employment opportunities with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), please visit the FBI's website .

[ Back to Top ]